The Paris Agreement highlights the requirement of limiting the global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius (°C), preferably to 1.5°C compared to pre-industrialised era. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) including Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major culprit of this global temperature increase. The transport sector has been identified as one of the major sectors that accounts for the excessive CO2 generation (27% of CO2 generation) whereas, renewable energy has been identified as a promising solution to combat the climate change crisis.
Against this backdrop, this research combines the problem and solution, enabling households with renewable energy to trade energy with electric vehicle users to charge their vehicles.
Our study develops a novel energy trading model that maximises benefits of both stakeholders; renewable energy based households and electric vehicle users.
The study involves methods including semi-structured interviews with stakeholder groups to identify the requirements, mathematical modelling and real-world energy data collection and validation. The UK is the scope of the study, given the fact that the withdrawal of government subsidies for renewable energy technologies has significantly affected the small scale renewable energy uptake in the UK.
The study's algorithm provides financial benefits for households by trading their generated energy at higher price, encouraging them to adopt more renewables. On the other hand, the EV users are provided with green energy at an affordable price, which reduces their indirect tailpipe emissions of CO2 (by using an alternative to grid-fed fossil fuel based electricity to charge the EV).
Additionally, with the UK government's new step towards greener transportation with net zero emissions by banning the sale of new internal combustion engine (ICE) models from 2030, this model will provide solutions to fulfil the increased EV charging demand while achieving remarkable emission reductions.
Further, our study fulfils some of the key Sustainable Development Goals set up by the UN towards the 2030 Agenda; namely goal 7 – affordable and clean energy; goal 11 – sustainable cities and communities and goal 13- climate action.
In the implementation (development) stage of the project, support of councils in Lancashire will be obtained to attract more volunteers to the trials. Local councils will play the role of educating people in the area about the potential benefits of the scheme to motivate public to engage in the project.
Image: Unsplash stock image, Michael Fousert
This project was inspired by clear evidence of the decline of renewable energy (eg: solar panels) uptake of households caused by removal of financial incentives for new entrants, for small scale renewable energy adoption in Europe; specially in the UK.
In the long run, climate change mitigation requirements highlighted by the Paris Agreement and sustainable development goals;
- goal 7 – affordable and clean energy;
- goal 11 – sustainable cities and communities
- goal 13 - climate action in United Nations
agenda for 2030 urged the requirement of developing a project idea that will encourage smart and renewable energy technologies. Furthermore, the UK government's new step towards greener transportation with net zero emissions by banning the sale of new internal combustion engine (ICE) models from 2030, opened up the project idea of trading excess household energy generation to charge Electric Vehicles.
In this project the households with renewable energy sources (solar panels/ wind turbines) can trade their excess energy to EV users to charge their vehicles at a higher price compared to the existing export tariff. Similarly, the EV users too can experience financial benefits by charging their vehicles using renewable energy at an affordable price compared to charging costs of public charging stations. Further, the overall system improves renewable energy usage.
In the implementation (development) stages of the project, local councils in Lancashire will be contacted and their support will be taken to attract participants for the study. Local councils have data and records about the households with solar panels in the area, can circulate the idea among the household solar energy generators in the area, educate them about the advantages and motivate them to engage in the project. Electric vehicle users can be contacted via councils or businesses in Lancashire. The project is currently co-funded by the Horizon 2020 programme of the European Union.
Energy generation and consumption values of households with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in kWh. Further EV users' energy requirement of charging their vehicles.